From a clinical point of view, the pelvis is very interesting, for at least two reasons: because its bone component is subject, not infrequently, to fractures and because it is the protagonist of a particular painful sensation which, in medical jargon, is called pelvic pain.
Fractures of the pelvic bones, known more simply as fractures of the pelvis, are injuries of generally traumatic origin, which can also affect more than one bone element.The typical symptom of pelvic fractures is pain where the fractured bone resides; less frequent but still important symptoms are: lameness (the degree varies according to the severity and location of the fracture), swelling and presence of hematoma.
The treatment of pelvic fractures depends on the severity of the bone lesion present: for less severe fractures, conservative therapy (or non-surgical therapy) is sufficient, which includes rest until the bone has been welded, the use of aids for the walking and taking pain relievers and anticoagulants; for major fractures, on the other hand, surgical therapy is essential, followed by an appropriate rest period.CAUSES OF PELVIC PAIN
The possible causes of pelvic pain are numerous, especially among women. For this reason, to simplify consultation, doctors and experts have deemed it appropriate to divide them into at least two broad categories, which correspond to:The category of gynecological causes, exclusive to the female sex, eThe category of non-gynecological causes, of which both men and women can be victims;
Among the gynecological causes of pelvic pain, certainly deserve a mention: dysmenorrhea (or painful menstruation), ovulation, endometriosis, rupture of an ovarian cyst, degeneration of a uterine fibroid, episodes of ovarian or tubal torsion , vulvodynia, prolapse of the uterus, pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous abortion, episodes of ectopic pregnancy and rupture of a tubo-ovarian abscess.
Among non-gynecological causes of pelvic pain, on the other hand, there are: episodes of gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, diverticulitis, tumors of the rectum or sigma, constipation, intestinal obstruction , perirectal abscess, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary tract diseases (such as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis and tumors), episodes of intestinal perforation and stretching of the abdominal muscles that contain the organs of the pelvis.
The pelvis (or pelvis) forms the most distal part of the trunk. It is a bone complex formed by the two bones of the hip, which also make up the pelvic girdle, thus re-entering the constitution of the lower limb, and by the last two segments of the vertebral column, the sacrum and coccyx.
The pelvic girdle is firmly connected to the sacral portion of the spine through the sacroiliac joint.Overall, the pelvis has the shape of a truncated cone with an antero-superior base facing the abdominal cavity and the lower apex facing the perineal region.
The pelvic cavity has the shape of a funnel and is divided into two parts, an upper one, called the large pelvis, and a lower one, called the small pelvis. The large pelvis is part of the abdominal cavity, the small pelvis is the pelvic cavity.
The large pelvis is the expanded upper portion of the pelvic cavity; posteriorly between the ileum and the lumbar spine there is a large continuous solution of the skeleton which is filled by the ilio-lumbar and sacro-iliac ligaments;
laterally it is delimited by the iliac wings and anteriorly, where the bony wall is missing, its limit is given by the anterior abdominal wall.The small pelvis has an upper opening, the upper strait, a lower opening, the lower strait, and a cavity.
The upper strait has an oval outline and is laterally delimited by the arched and pectinous lines, forward by the continuation of the latter up to the pubic tubercle, and behind by the wings of the sacrum and by a median protrusion, the promontory, which corresponds to the lumbosacral angle.The diameters of the upper strait are: